Glossary of Trunking, Digital & Motorola ASTRO« Terminology

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ABO
Automatic Busy Override.

ACB
Asynchronous Communications Board is used to interface a 6809 Controller to the Zone Controller. It is also used to interface Simulcast Remote Site Controllers to a Prime Site Controller.

ACC
Adjacent Control Channel. In SmartZone and OmniLink systems, subscriber units will maintain a list of the Control Channels of the sites (up to seven) adjacent to the site it is operating in. The subscriber unit receives this information from the OSWs sent out on the control channel of the site it is operating in. These OSWs also indicate the alternate Control Channels at the broadcasting site.

Accounting Management
Involves the reporting of the activities of radio users on the system. Accounting Management provides the following capabilities: Air Traffic Information Access (ATIA) Data and Basic Statistics.

ADPCM card
A server resource card used in the TeNSr channel banks for Adaptive Differential Pulse Coded Modulation (ADPCM) voice compression of a 64 Kbps time slot and ASTRO audio and combining them into a DS0 at the output. This card is only used in analog/digital mixed-mode systems.

Affiliated Zone
The zone to which a radio is currently affiliated.

Affiliation
The process in which a subscriber unit signals to the system which talkgroup or site it is currently associated with.

Affiliation Group
The talkgroup to which a radio is currently affiliated.

Alias
An alphanumeric name used to identify a radio, talkgroup, site, etc. rather than using the assigned six-digit ID number.

AllStart
A talkgroup setting which requires all affiliated talkgroup members to be available for a call to begin.

Ambassador Electronics Bank
AEB. Also Embassy Switch. A Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) audio switch capable of simultaneously routing audio from multiple sources to one or more destinations. In an SmartZone OmniLink system, the Zone Controller in each zone controls the audio routing for the associated AEB in that zone.

Announcement Group
A collection of two or more talkgroups. Also called a multigroup.

Announcement Group call
A group call involving two or more talkgroups. Also called a multigroup call.

Announcement Group ID
Unique identifier assigned to each announcement group in a Motorola trunking system.

ANSI
American National Standards Institute.

APCO
Association of Public Safety Communications Officers. A national organization of communications professionals that supports and promotes public safety communications concerns.

ASIC
Application Specific Integrated Circuit.

ASTRO CAI
ASTRO Common Air Interface. A modulation type that uses an Improved Multi-Band Excitation (IMBE) vocoder to convert analog voice into a digital signal.

ASTRO-TAC
ASTRO Total Area Coverage. A comparator for audio voting in an ASTRO or mixed mode system.

Audio Interrupt
Capability that allows users of a talkgroup to interrupt the audio of the current transmitting talkgroup member.

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BER
Bit Error Rate. Used as the performance metric for the digitized form of voice.

BERT
Bit Error Rate Test.

BNC Connector
Bayonet-Neill-Concelman connector. A standardized coaxial cable connector, used for Thin Ethernet cables, ARCnet networks and for the transmission of audio and RF signals.

BSI
Base Station Identifier. A Morse code signal that is automatically transmitted every thirty minutes, broadcasting the system identification of that site. The BSI is transmitted on the lowest frequency used at that site. This signal is sent in order to conform to FCC regulations.

Busy Handling
The collection of features that manages call processing when resources are not available to grant a call.

Busy Override
A feature that allows a radio user to request that a talkgroup call be processed if resources are not available at all sites where talkgroup members are affiliated.

Busy Queuing
A method of queuing a call when resources are not available to grant the call.

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CAI
Common Air Interface -- an APCO Project 25 requirement.

Call Alert II
An "individual" signal type (alert) between two radios or between a radio and a console operator.

Call Continuation
Refers to the capability of passing active calls or busy queue designations across zone boundaries. Also termed Call Handoff, Call Coordination, or Call Reconnect.

CAS
Channel Associated Signaling.

CBR
Constant Bit Rate.

CCM
Channel Control Module. A CentraCom console module that is a direct interface for the dispatcher to make calls and to indicate received calls.

CCS
Common Channel Signaling.

CDM
Console Database Manager.

CEB
Central Electronics Bank. An intercommunications network that allows for integration of dispatch positions and the communications equipment they control.

CentraCom
The Motorola product line of console dispatch equipment, including furniture and programming.

CentraCom Gold Elite Subnet
A subnet that consists of a Windows NT-based Console Database Manager/Alias Database Manager (CDM/ADM) file server(s) and a number of Windows NT-based Operator Dispatch workstations.

CentraCom Gold Series Platform
A platform that supports Classic Gold CRT, Classic Gold Button and LEDs, and Elite operator positions.

Central Controller
Equipment at a master site or remote site that controls a set of base stations or repeaters. A central controller is typically a computer that processes inbound and outbound data traffic, assigns repeaters for voice channel access, and generally monitors and maintains order in the system.

CEPT
Conference European des Postes et Telecommunications. An association of the twenty-six European PTTs (Postes (mail), Telephone and Telegraph) that recommends communication specifications to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).

Channel Spacing
The frequency separation between centers of RF channel assignments.

Cisco/StrataCom IGX Switch
A communications network resource management system that uses Cell Relay technology to maximize the use of the T1/E1 facility. There are three models: the IGX-8, the IGX-16, and IGX-32. The IGX will be utilized in SmartZone OmniLink systems that have three or more zones.

CIU
Console Interface Unit. Device used in 12 Kbps SECURENET systems for encryption/decryption of audio.

CM
Circuit Merit. An indication of audio quality in analog and 12 Kbps SECURENET systems.

Collocated
Pertaining to a configuration in which equipment resides in the same physical site.

Configuration Management
Refers to the capabilities which allow the user to configure operational parameters of physical and logical devices used within the system. There are two categories, Subscriber Management performed through the User Configuration System and Infrastructure Management performed through the OmniLink Zone Manager.

Connect Tone
A subaudible (below 300 Hz) tone transmitted by a radio to the system when the radio is keyed in an analog trunking system. Eight different connect tones are possible in system applications.

Connect Word
A subaudible, 150-baud data word transmitted by the repeaters to radios to permit uninterrupted communication. It is also called the low-speed handshake (LSHS) signal or low-speed data word.

Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulation
(CVSD). A sophisticated method of analog-to-digital conversion used in 12 Kbps Secure and ASTRO Digital systems.

Control Channel
Communication channel implemented by a base station or repeater used to transmit and receive channel assignment data or process other control commands from the system. Contrast with a base station or repeater functioning as a voice channel used to transmit and receive voice information.

Controlling Zone
(CZ). The zone that coordinates the resources for a call, same as "Home Zone" for Group-Based Services; is the zone from which the voice service is being requested for Individual-Based Services.

CPE
Customer Premises Equipment.

CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check. An error-checking technique.

CVSD
Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulation. A sophisticated method of analog-to-digital conversion used in 12 Kbps Secure and ASTRO Digital systems.

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DAQ
Delivered Audio Quality. An indication of audio quality in ASTRO CAI systems. It is the counterpart of Circuit Merit used in analog systems.

DCB
Data Concentrator Board. A 6809 site controller board that provides a link between the central site controller and the Asynchronous Communications Board (ACB) in Simulcast subsystems.

Deaffiliation
The process in which the subscriber radio signals to the system that it is no longer monitoring the system because it is power down or it is changing mode to another system which is not part of the system.

DES-XL
The published encryption algorithm that meets federal standards for secure communications.

DIGITAC
Digital Voice Protection Total Area Coverage. A comparator used for audio voting in 12 Kbps secure or clear analog systems.

Digital Interface Unit
(DIU). Device used in Astro or mixed-mode Astro systems for encryption/decryption of audio to/from the console or MBeX.

Disconnect Tone
A subaudible, 163.64 Hz tone generated by a radio when dekeying. The controller uses this tone to start the timeout timer in message trunking. In transmission trunking, receipt of the Disconnect Tone causes an immediate release of the voice channel by the controller.

Disconnect Word
A 300-baud data word sent from the central controller on the voice channel after the timeout timer expires in message trunking. In transmission trunking the Disconnect Word is sent immediately upon subscriber dekey in a talkgroup call. The radio receives the data, mutes the receiver, and returns to the control channel.

DIU
Digital Interface Unit. Device used in Astro or mixed-mode Astro systems for encryption/decryption of audio to/from the console or MBeX.

DOD
Department Of Defense.

DPI
Direct Phone Interface. One of the telephone interconnect interfaces for the CentraCom consoles.

DSM-II Card
A voice card used for Prime Site, Remote Site, and collocated Simulcast configurations. The DSM-II provides precisely timed audio signals from a single source to multiple transmitters that will reduce distortion in overlapping broadcast areas. The DSM-II may also be used to provide an interface to the AEB for 12 Kbps Secure audio.

DSU
Data Service Unit. A device used in digital transmission for connecting data terminal equipment (DTE).

DTE
Data Terminal Equipment.

DVM
Digital Voice Modem. A modem that is capable of sending 12 Kbps encrypted signals over narrowband voice-grade telephone lines by compressing the bandwidth to prevent unauthorized monitoring of wireline communications.

DVP-XL
The Motorola propriety encryption method.

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EIA
Electronic Industries Association.

Embassy Switch
Ambassador Electronics Bank (AEB). A Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) audio switch capable of simultaneously routing audio from multiple sources to one or more destinations.

Emergency Call
The highest priority service of talkgroup call. When the emergency button of a subscriber unit is pressed and the PTT pressed, an Emergency Call is granted.

Ethernet
A method used for connecting computer systems together using local area network (LAN) technology.

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Failsoft
A fallback means of communication if a site or subsystem cannot perform wide-area or site-trunking operations. In standalone remote sites and receiver voting sites, the repeaters generate the failsoft word. In Simulcast subsystems, the prime site Universal Simulcast Controller Interface (USCI) generates the failsoft word.

FastStart
Automatic busy override function--configured by talkgroup. A talkgroup call can proceed if resources are not available at all sites where talkgroup members are located. However, if there are critical sites designated for that talkgroup, the call cannot be processed until resources are available at the critical site(s).

FCC
Federal Communications Commission.

FullVision
FullVision Integrated Network Manager (INM). A subsystem of the OmniLink Network Management (ONM) Network system that allows a customer to integrate fault information from multiple subsystems into a single location under a Hewlett Packard OpenView software application.

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GOS
Grade of Service. A specification which determines how often a radio or console user will receive a busy. This is typically rated as a percentage of the total calls being processed by the system.

Group-Based Service
Talkgroup voice-based services, includes Talkgroup Calls, Announcement Group Calls, Emergency Calls, and Group Regrouping.

GUI
Graphical User Interface.

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Home Zone
(HZ). An assignment made for each talkgroup and radio user in the system that helps determine which Zone Controller will coordinate the call process.

HZ
Home Zone. An assignment made for each talkgroup and radio user in the system that helps determine which Zone Controller will coordinate the call process.

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ID
Identification.

IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.

IGX
Integrated Gigabit Switch. A communications network resource management system that is used with SmartZone OmniLink systems with three or more zones to provide the necessary connectivity and bandwidth management between zones.

IMBE
Improved Multi-Band Excitation. The vocoding algorithm used in ASTRO Digital systems--required for APCO Project 25 conformance.

Improved Multi-Band Excitation
(IMBE). The vocoding algorithm used in ASTRO Digital systems--required for APCO Project 25 conformance.

Inbound Signal Word
(ISW). A data burst from a radio sent on the control channel to request service from a central controller.

Individual Call
Private Call or telephone interconnect call.

Individual-Based Service
Individual voice-based services which include Private Calls, Landline-to-Radio Interconnect Calls and Radio-to-Landline Interconnect Calls.

IntelliRepeater
(IR). A Quantar/Quantro based trunked repeater with additional capability to perform the trunking functions of a remote site controller.

Interconnect
A call feature that provides radios with access to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Telephone interconnect can be used for both landline-to-radio calls and radio-to-landline calls.

Interrupt Mode
A mode of operation for multigroup calls that can be programmed so that the system immediately terminates all currently active talkgroup calls of all talkgroups within the multigroup.

Interzone
Pertaining to functions or features that operate, or network traffic that flows, between separate SmartZone OmniLink zones.

Intrazone
Pertaining to functions or features that operate, or network traffic that flows, within the same SmartZone OmniLink zone.

IR
IntelliRepeater. A Quantar/Quantro based trunked repeater with additional capability to perform the trunking functions of a remote site controller.

ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network.

ISW
Inbound signal word. A data burst from a radio sent on the control channel to request service from a central controller.

ITU
International Telecommunications Union.

ITU Conference
Conference EuropeÚne des Postes et Telecommunications. An association of the 26 European PTTs that recommends communication specifications to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).

ITU-T
International Telecommunications Union -- Telecommunications Sector.

IZ
InterZone.

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Kbps
Kilobits (1024 bits) per second.

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LAN
Local Area Network.

Low-Speed Handshake Signal
(LSHS). A subaudible, 150-baud data word transmitted by the repeaters to radios to permit uninterrupted communication. It is also called the connect word or low-speed data word.

LSHS
Low-Speed Handshake Signal. A subaudible, 150-baud data word transmitted by repeaters to radios to permit uninterrupted communication. It is also called the connect word or low-speed data word.

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Master Site
OmniLink Master Site. A Master Site containing one or more sets of zone control equipment.

MBeX
Motorola Business eXchange. A device that provides telephone interconnect capabilities between radio users and the public switched telephone network (PSTN).

MBO
Manual Busy Override.

Mbps
Megabits (approximately 1,000,000 bits) per second.

MBX
Motorola Business eXchange. A device that provides telephone interconnect capabilities between radio users and the public switched telephone network (PSTN).

Message Trunking
A feature that allows radios in the same talkgroup call to continue, utilizing a hangtime to allow responding users to respond on the same RF channel assignment.

MHz
Megahertz. Frequency measure equal to 1,000,000 cycles per second.

Mixed Mode
Term used to describe support of both analog and Astro CAI traffic types.

Motorola Business Exchange
(MBX or MBEX). A device that provides telephone interconnect capabilities between radio users and the public switched telephone network (PSTN).

MSEL
MultiSelect.

Multigroup
Announcement Group. A collection of two or more talkgroups.

Multigroup Call
Announcement Group call. A group call involving two or more talkgroups.

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Narrow Pulse
A technical modulation approach that allows an ASTRO voice signal to fit into a narrowband energy mask. This term only applies to ASTRO operation.

Narrowband
An RF signal that requires 12.5 kHz of spectrum bandwidth to deliver intelligible information.

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Outbound Signal Word
(OSW). A 3600-baud data word containing channel assignments and other service information for subscriber radios. The central controller generates the SSW and transmits it over the control channel to radios monitoring that channel.

OSW
Outbound Signal Word. A 3600-baud data word containing channel assignments and other service information for subscriber radios. The central controller generates the SSW and transmits it over the control channel to radios monitoring that channel.

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PBX
Private Branch Exchange.

PC II
Private Conversation II. A type of Private Converstaion Call that allows a request from an initiating subscriber to be immediately granted as long as voice channels are available to be assigned to the call.

PCM
Pulse Code Modulation. The type of modulation used in digital transmission.

PLIC
Phone Line Interface Card. A card that interfaces the PSTN lines with the Motorola Business Exchange (MBeX).

Primary Talkgroup
Unique talkgroup parameter in the subscriber radio.

Prime Site
The central controlling site of a trunked Simulcast system where all audio processing and channel resource management occurs.

Priority Monitor
A feature that allows a radio to scan for "priority groups" while on a voice channel. The priority monitor group must be affiliated at the subscriber's site.

Private Conversation Call
An individual call between two radios or between a radio and a console operator.

Private Conversation II
PC II. A type of Private Call that allows a request from an initiating subscriber to be immediately granted as long as voice channels are available to be assigned to the call.

PSTN
Public Switched Telephone Network.

PTT Button
Push to Talk Button. Button on a radio the user presses in order to transmit voice information.

PTT ID
Push to Talk Identification. A talkgroup programmable function that allows dispatchers to know who is calling and allows each user's call to be logged.

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Receiver Voting
A 6809 controller-based, wide-area approach, which extends the talk-in capabilities of a system.

Remote Site
A site that consists of repeaters and a site controller, which are linked to a Master Site.

Repeater
Station at a master site or remote site that broadcasts and receives RF signals to and from mobile and portable radios in the field.

Requested Sites for Dispatch
A feature that specifies, for a particular talkgroup, sites that should be considered affiliated for the given talkgroup.

Requested Sites for Individual Calls
A feature that specifies, for a particular radio user, which sites or subsystems must be included in that radio user's individual calls.

Requesting Radio
Radio sending inbound event information to the central controller.

ReSC
Remote 6809 Site Controller in a Receiver Voting or Simulcast subsystem. The remote site board that receives data link instructions from the central controller at the prime site through the Data Concentrator Board (DCB) and the Asynchronous Communications Board (ACB) for channel resource management.

RF
Radio Frequency.

Ruthless Preemption
A method of acquiring a channel for an emergency call in a busy condition. A call with a lower priority is terminated to release a channel for assignment to the emergency call.

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SDA
Simulcast Distribution Amplifier. A component used in the Simulcast audio distribution network.

Secure Call
A call that may be either 12 Kbps SECURENET or Encrypted Astro CAI. Secure operation can be applied to all call types and can be applied to both radios or consoles.

Secure Multikey
Allows different talkgroups and individuals to use different encryption keys on the same system. Multikey only applies to encrypted ASTRO CAI.

Simulcast
A wide-area trunked system configuration that uses multiple transmitter and receiver sites to extend coverage of the system. All the corresponding channel numbers at all the sites uses the same frequency.

Site Access Control
A feature that allows system administrators to control the access to sites by individuals and talkgroups.

Site or Subsystem Trunking
Trunking operation is limited to the coverage area of one site or one subsystem (simulcast or voting subsystem). This is normally caused by a failure of the link connecting the site to the Master Site.

SmartZone
A Motorola high-capacity, integrated, wide-area coverage radio system.

SmartZone OmniLink
A software-based, very-wide-area radio communications network based on the interconnection of multiple SmartZone systems.

SNIPS
SmartNet Internet Protocol Service.

SPI
Smart Phone Interface. One of the telephone interconnect interfaces for the CentraCom consoles.

SSC
Motorola System Support Center.

SSW
Background Data Word. Signal continuously broadcast over the control channel by the central controller to all active radios.

Status Tone
A 2175 Hz audio tone that indicates inactivity and control system operations in trunked systems.

System Administrator
This is the person(s) who performs the installation, configuration and maintenance of the system.

System Status Word
(SSW). Signal continuously broadcast over the control channel by the central controller to all active radios.

SZ
SmartZone.

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Talkgroup
A group of radio users that can share calls and messages as a group. A talkgroup comprises a group of users who have a need to communicate with each other.

Talkgroup Call
Call involving other users within the originating user's own talkgroup.

Talkgroup ID
Unique identifier assigned to each talkgroup in a Motorola trunking system.

Talkgroup Scan
A feature that allows a subscriber unit to scan those talkgroups that have an affiliated member at the scanning radio's site. The Talkgroup Scan list(s) must be programmed in the radio.

Target Radio
The subscriber whose operation is affected by the Outbound Radio Command function or a radio to which a call or Call Alert is being initiated.

TDM
Time Division Multiplexing. Used in digital transmission for transferring voice and data.

Telephone Interconnect
A call feature that provides radios with access to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Telephone interconnect can be used for both landline-to-radio calls and radio-to-landline calls.

TG
Talkgroup.

TIA
Telecommunications Industries Association.

Top of Queue
An emergency setup method that places an Emergency Call request at the top of the busy queue at the requesting site.

Transmission Trunking
Trunking application that requires radios in a talkgroup to return to the control channel and receive a new channel assignment after each Push-To-Talk (PTT).

TRIC
Trunked Repeater Interface Card. A module in the Motorola Business Exchange (MBeX) that interfaces up to three trunked repeaters for processing interconnect calls in SmartZone or OmniLink systems.

Trunking
A method of sharing a small number of communication paths among a large number of users.

Type I
An older signaling scheme for trunking systems. Type I trunking identifies users by fleet and subfleet.

Type II Trunking
A signaling scheme for trunking systems. Type II signaling can provide up to 65,535 individual ID numbers and 4,096 talkgroup ID numbers. Due to system constraints, only 48,000 individual IDs and 4,000 talkgroup IDs can actually be used.

Type II
Trunking Type II. A signaling scheme for trunking systems. Type II signaling can provide up to 65,535 individual ID numbers and 4,096 talkgroup ID numbers. Due to system constraints, only 48,000 individual IDs and 4,000 talkgroup IDs can actually be used.

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USCI
Universal Simulcast Controller Interface. An interface that is part of the Simulcast audio distribution network.

Unit ID
Unique identifier assigned to each radio in a Motorola trunking system.

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VOC
Voice On Control. An option that can be used with IntelliRepeaters.

Vocoder
Device in an ASTRO Digital radio that converts between an analog voice signal and a digital signal for transmission.

Voice Channel
Communication channel implemented by a base station or repeater used to transmit and receive voice information. Contrast with a base station or repeater functioning as a control channel used to transmit and receive channel assignment data or process other control commands from the system.

Voting Comparator
A device that compares the quality of input signals from different remote sites to determine the best quality signal. The comparator then votes the best signal and delivers it for distribution.

VRM
Vehicular Radio Modem.

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Wide Pulse
A technical approach that allows an ASTRO voice signal to fit into a wideband energy mask. This term only applies to ASTRO operation.

Wideband
An RF signal that requires 25 kHz of spectrum bandwidth to deliver intelligible information.

Wait Mode
One of the two modes that can be programmed into the system so that an announcement group call can take place. The system applies transmission trunking to active calls of all talkgroups within the multigroup. Talkgroup calls end when all talkgroup members dekey. When all talkgroup calls have ended the announcement group call can begin.

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Zone Controller
Handles the call processing, mobility, and some network management functions in an OmniLink system. Each zone in an OmniLink system has a Zone Controller.

Zone Master Site
A Master Site containing a set of zone control equipment comprising a single zone.

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